Cesium 概述 (二) 空间数据可视化

作者:happyduoduo1

                                                              空间数据可视化

Cesium提供Entity API来绘制空间数据,例如点、标记、标签、线、3D模型、形状、立体形状(volume)。

Entity API简介

Cesium提供两类API:

  1. (1)面向图形开发人员的底层API,通常称为“Primitive API”。该API暴露最小限度的抽象,使用图形学术语,具有很大的灵活性,需要具有图形学编程的知识
  2. (2)高级别的数据驱动的API,称为“Entity API”。该API使用一致性设计的、高级别的对象来管理一组相关性的可视化对象,其底层使用Primitive API

下面是Entity API的简单例子,用红色半透明区域标记出美国怀俄明州:

var viewer = new Cesium.Viewer('cesiumContainer'); //创建一个查看器(Viewer widget)
var wyoming = viewer.entities.add({  //添加一个实体,仅需要传递一个简单JSON对象,返回值是一个Entity对象
  name : 'Wyoming',
  polygon : {
    hierarchy : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray([//一组地理坐标
                              -109.080842,45.002073,
                              -105.91517,45.002073,
                              -104.058488,44.996596,
                              -104.053011,43.002989,
                              -104.053011,41.003906,
                              -105.728954,40.998429,
                              -107.919731,41.003906,
                              -109.04798,40.998429,
                              -111.047063,40.998429,
                              -111.047063,42.000709,
                              -111.047063,44.476286,
                              -111.05254,45.002073]),
    material : Cesium.Color.RED.withAlpha(0.5), //材质
    outline : true, //是否显示轮廓
    outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLACK //轮廓的颜色
  }
});
viewer.zoomTo(wyoming);//缩放、平移视图使实体可见 

形状与立体(Shapes and Volumes)

支持的形状与立体列表

(1) 立方体(Boxes):

var blueBox = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Blue box',
     //中心的位置
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-114.0, 40.0, 300000.0),
    box : {
        //长宽高
        dimensions : new Cesium.Cartesian3(400000.0, 300000.0, 500000.0),
        material : Cesium.Color.BLUE
    }
});
 
var redBox = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Red box with black outline',
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-107.0, 40.0, 300000.0),
    box : {
        dimensions : new Cesium.Cartesian3(400000.0, 300000.0, 500000.0),
        material : Cesium.Color.RED,
        outline : true, //显示轮廓
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLACK
    }
});
 
var outlineOnly = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Yellow box outline',
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-100.0, 40.0, 300000.0),
    box : {
        dimensions : new Cesium.Cartesian3(400000.0, 300000.0, 500000.0),
        fill : false,  //不显示填充
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.YELLOW
    }
});

(2)圆和椭圆(Circles Ellipses)

var viewer = new Cesium.Viewer('cesiumContainer');
//浮空的绿色圆形
var greenCircle = viewer.entities.add({
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-111.0, 40.0, 150000.0),
    name : 'Green circle at height',
    ellipse : {
        semiMinorAxis : 300000.0,
        semiMajorAxis : 300000.0,
        height: 200000.0, //浮空
        material : Cesium.Color.GREEN
    }
});
//红色椭圆形,位于地表,带轮廓
var redEllipse = viewer.entities.add({
    //不带高度
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-103.0, 40.0),
    name : 'Red ellipse on surface with outline',
    ellipse : {
        semiMinorAxis : 250000.0,
        semiMajorAxis : 400000.0,
        material : Cesium.Color.RED.withAlpha(0.5),
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.RED
    }
});
//蓝色椭圆柱,旋转了角度
var blueEllipse = viewer.entities.add({
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-95.0, 40.0, 100000.0),
    name : 'Blue translucent, rotated, and extruded ellipse',
    ellipse : {
        semiMinorAxis : 150000.0,
        semiMajorAxis : 300000.0,
        extrudedHeight : 200000.0,  //拉伸
        rotation : Cesium.Math.toRadians(45), //旋转
        material : Cesium.Color.BLUE.withAlpha(0.7),
        outline : true
    }
});
 
viewer.zoomTo(viewer.entities);

(3)走廊(Corridor)

var redCorridor = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Red corridor on surface with rounded corners and outline',
    corridor : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray([
                                                        -100.0, 40.0,
                                                        -105.0, 40.0,
                                                        -105.0, 35.0
                                                    ]),
                                                    width : 200000.0,
        material : Cesium.Color.RED.withAlpha(0.5),
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.RED
    }
});
 
var greenCorridor = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Green corridor at height with mitered corners',
    corridor : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray(
        [    -90.0, 40.0,
             -95.0, 40.0,
             -95.0, 35.0
        ]),
        height: 100000.0,
        width : 200000.0,
        cornerType: Cesium.CornerType.MITERED,
        material : Cesium.Color.GREEN
    }
});
 
var blueCorridor = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Blue extruded corridor with beveled corners and outline',
    corridor : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray(
        [    80.0, 40.0,
             -85.0, 40.0,
             -85.0, 35.0
        ]),
        height : 200000.0,
        extrudedHeight : 100000.0,
        width : 200000.0,
        cornerType: Cesium.CornerType.BEVELED,
        material : Cesium.Color.BLUE.withAlpha(0.5),
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLUE
    }
});

(4)圆柱和圆锥(Cylinder Cones)

var greenCylinder = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Green cylinder with black outline',
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-100.0, 40.0, 200000.0),
    cylinder : { //圆柱
        length : 400000.0,
        topRadius : 200000.0,
        bottomRadius : 200000.0,
        material : Cesium.Color.GREEN,
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.DARK_GREEN
    }
});
 
var redCone = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Red cone',
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-105.0, 40.0, 200000.0),
    cylinder : {//圆锥
        length : 400000.0,
        topRadius : 0.0,
        bottomRadius : 200000.0,
        material : Cesium.Color.RED
    }
});

(5) 多边形(Polygons)

var redPolygon = viewer.entities.add({
    name : '贴着地表的多边形',
    polygon : {
        hierarchy : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray([-115.0, 37.0,
                                                        -115.0, 32.0,
                                                        -107.0, 33.0,
                                                        -102.0, 31.0,
                                                        -102.0, 35.0]),
        material : Cesium.Color.RED
    }
});
 
var greenPolygon = viewer.entities.add({
    name : '绿色拉伸多边形',
    polygon : {
        hierarchy : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray([-108.0, 42.0,
                                                        -100.0, 42.0,
                                                        -104.0, 40.0]),
        extrudedHeight: 500000.0,
        material : Cesium.Color.GREEN
    }
});
 
var orangePolygon = viewer.entities.add({
    name : '每个顶点具有不同拉伸高度的橘色多边形',
    polygon : {
        hierarchy : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArrayHeights(
            [-108.0, 25.0, 100000,
             -100.0, 25.0, 100000,
             -100.0, 30.0, 100000,
             -108.0, 30.0, 300000]),
        extrudedHeight: 0,
        perPositionHeight : true,
        material : Cesium.Color.ORANGE,
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLACK
    }
});
 
var bluePolygon = viewer.entities.add({
    name : '具有挖空效果的蓝色多边形',
    polygon : {
        hierarchy : {
            positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray(
                [-99.0, 30.0,
                 -85.0, 30.0,
                 -85.0, 40.0,
                 -99.0, 40.0]),
            holes : [{
                positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray([
                    -97.0, 31.0,
                    -97.0, 39.0,
                    -87.0, 39.0,
                    -87.0, 31.0
                ]),
                holes : [{
                    positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray([
                        -95.0, 33.0,
                        -89.0, 33.0,
                        -89.0, 37.0,
                        -95.0, 37.0
                    ]),
                    holes : [{
                        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray([
                            -93.0, 34.0,
                            -91.0, 34.0,
                            -91.0, 36.0,
                            -93.0, 36.0
                        ])
                    }]
                }]
            }]
        },
        material : Cesium.Color.BLUE,
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLACK
    }
});

(6)多段线(Polylines)
var redLine = viewer.entities.add({
    name : '沿着地球表面的红线',
    polyline : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray(
            [-75, 35,
             -125, 35]),
        width : 5,
        material : Cesium.Color.RED
    }
});
 
var glowingLine = viewer.entities.add({
    name : '具有发光效果的线',
    polyline : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray(
            [-75, 37, -125, 37]
        ),
        width : 10,
        material : new Cesium.PolylineGlowMaterialProperty({
            glowPower : 0.2,
            color : Cesium.Color.BLUE
        })
    }
});
 
var orangeOutlined = viewer.entities.add({
    name : '具有一定高度的线',
    polyline : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArrayHeights(
            [-75, 39, 250000,-125, 39, 250000]
        ),
        width : 5,
        material : new Cesium.PolylineOutlineMaterialProperty({
            color : Cesium.Color.ORANGE,
            outlineWidth : 2,
            outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLACK
        })
    }
});
 
var yellowLine = viewer.entities.add({
    name : '不贴着地表的线',
    polyline : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArrayHeights(
            [-75, 43, 500000,-125, 43, 500000]
        ),
        width : 3,
        followSurface : false,  //是否贴着地表
        material : Cesium.Color.PURPLE
    }
});
(7)多段线体(Polyline Volumes)
var viewer = new Cesium.Viewer('cesiumContainer');
 
function computeCircle(radius) {
    var positions = [];
    for (var i = 0; i < 360; i++) {
        var radians = Cesium.Math.toRadians(i);
        positions.push(new Cesium.Cartesian2(
            radius * Math.cos(radians), radius * Math.sin(radians)));
    }
    return positions;
}
 
function computeStar(arms, rOuter, rInner) {
    var angle = Math.PI / arms;
    var length = 2 * arms;
    var positions = new Array(length);
    for (var i = 0; i < length; i++) {
        var r = (i % 2) === 0 ? rOuter : rInner;
        positions[i] = new Cesium.Cartesian2(
            Math.cos(i * angle) * r, Math.sin(i * angle) * r);
    }
    return positions;
}
 
var redTube = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Red tube with rounded corners',
    polylineVolume : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray(
            [-85.0, 32.0,
             -85.0, 36.0,
             -89.0, 36.0]),
        shape : computeCircle(60000.0),
        material : Cesium.Color.RED
    }
});
 
var greenBox = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Green box with beveled corners and outline',
    polylineVolume : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArrayHeights(
            [-90.0, 32.0, 0.0,
             -90.0, 36.0, 100000.0,
             -94.0, 36.0, 0.0]),
        shape :[new Cesium.Cartesian2(-50000, -50000),
                new Cesium.Cartesian2(50000, -50000),
                new Cesium.Cartesian2(50000, 50000),
                new Cesium.Cartesian2(-50000, 50000)],
        cornerType : Cesium.CornerType.BEVELED,
        material : Cesium.Color.GREEN,
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLACK
    }
});
 
var blueStar = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Blue star with mitered corners and outline',
    polylineVolume : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArrayHeights(
            [-95.0, 32.0, 0.0,
             -95.0, 36.0, 100000.0,
             -99.0, 36.0, 200000.0]),
        shape : computeStar(7, 70000, 50000),
        cornerType : Cesium.CornerType.MITERED,
        material : Cesium.Color.BLUE,
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLACK
    }
});
 
viewer.zoomTo(viewer.entities);

(8)矩形(Rectangles)

<strong>//红色矩形
var redRectangle = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Red translucent rectangle with outline',
    rectangle : {
        coordinates : Cesium.Rectangle.fromDegrees(-110.0, 20.0, -80.0, 25.0),
        material : Cesium.Color.RED.withAlpha(0.5),
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.RED
    }
});
//绿色旋转、拉伸的矩形
var greenRectangle = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Green translucent, rotated, and extruded rectangle',
    rectangle : {
        coordinates : Cesium.Rectangle.fromDegrees(-100.0, 30.0, -90.0, 40.0),
        material : Cesium.Color.GREEN.withAlpha(0.5),
        rotation : Cesium.Math.toRadians(45),
        extrudedHeight : 300000.0,
        height : 100000.0,
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.GREEN
    }
});</strong>

(9)球和椭球(Spheres Ellipsoids)

<pre name="code" class="javascript">var blueEllipsoid = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Blue ellipsoid',
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-114.0, 40.0, 300000.0),
    ellipsoid : {
        //可以指定三个轴的半径
        radii : new Cesium.Cartesian3(200000.0, 200000.0, 300000.0),
        material : Cesium.Color.BLUE
    }
});
 
var redSphere = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Red sphere with black outline',
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-107.0, 40.0, 300000.0),
    ellipsoid : {
        //正球体
        radii : new Cesium.Cartesian3(300000.0, 300000.0, 300000.0),
        material : Cesium.Color.RED,
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLACK
    }
});
 
var outlineOnly = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Yellow ellipsoid outline',
    position: Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-100.0, 40.0, 300000.0),
    ellipsoid : {
        radii : new Cesium.Cartesian3(200000.0, 200000.0, 300000.0),
        fill : false,
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.YELLOW,
        slicePartitions : 24, //横向切割线
        stackPartitions : 36  //纵向切割线
    }
});



(10) (Walls)

//东西方向的横墙
var redWall = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Red wall at height',
    wall : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArrayHeights(
             [-115.0, 44.0, 200000.0,//坐标点
              -90.0, 44.0, 200000.0]
        ),
        minimumHeights : [100000.0, 100000.0], //按坐标点的最小高度数组
        material : Cesium.Color.RED
    }
});
//四边围墙
var greenWall = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Green wall from surface with outline',
    wall : {
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArrayHeights(
            [-107.0, 43.0, 100000.0,
             -97.0, 43.0, 100000.0,
             -97.0, 40.0, 100000.0,
             -107.0, 40.0, 100000.0,
             -107.0, 43.0, 100000.0]),
        material : Cesium.Color.GREEN,
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLACK
    }
});
//曲折的墙
var blueWall = viewer.entities.add({
    name : 'Blue wall with sawtooth heights and outline',
    wall : {
        //坐标点,不指定高度
        positions : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegreesArray(
            [-115.0, 50.0,
             -112.5, 50.0,
             -110.0, 50.0,
             -107.5, 50.0,
             -105.0, 50.0,
             -102.5, 50.0,
             -100.0, 50.0,
             -97.5, 50.0,
             -95.0, 50.0,
             -92.5, 50.0,
             -90.0, 50.0]),
        maximumHeights : [ //上高
            100000, 200000, 100000, 200000, 100000, 200000, 
            100000, 200000, 100000, 200000, 100000],
        minimumHeights : [  //下高
            0, 100000,  0, 100000, 0, 100000, 0, 100000, 0,
            100000, 0],
        material : Cesium.Color.BLUE,
        outline : true,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.BLACK
    }
});

材质(Material)与轮廓(Outline)

多数形状均支持通过一致的方式来设置属性、控制外观:

  1. (1)fill:布尔型,用于指定目标形状是否被填充
  2. (2)outline:布尔型,用于指定是否绘制形状的边缘
  3. (3)material:如果fill为true,该属性可以控制填充的材质类型

一个例外是多段线,可以设置outlineWidth 、outlineColor、glowPower 等属性。

高度与拉伸(Extrusion)

所有的形状均默认均是沿着地表的,目前圆形、椭圆、矩形可以在一定高度浮空显示,或者拉伸为Volume。

需要注意:Cesium总是使用米、弧度、秒为度量单位。下面是一个例子:

wyoming.polygon.height = 200000;         //设置高度
wyoming.polygon.extrudedHeight = 250000; //设置拉伸高度
在Viewer中可用的Entity特性

除非显式禁用,点击实体后会显示SelectionIndicator小器件,以及一个信息框。通过设置Entity.description,可以在信息框中显示任何HTML内容。

镜头控制

zoomTo方法可以立即定位到某个位置,而flyTo则是通过动画方式转移到某个位置,这两个方法均可以传递EntityCollection对象,并且均是异步方法,返回一个Promises对象

默认情况下,镜头是朝北、45度倾斜查看地球。下面的代码可以让镜头朝东、倾斜三十度查看:

//镜头顺时针旋转九十度,即东向
var heading = Cesium.Math.toRadians(90);
//镜头倾斜30度俯视
var pitch = Cesium.Math.toRadians(-30);
viewer.zoomTo(wyoming, new Cesium.HeadingPitchRange(heading, pitch)).then(function(result){
    //执行完毕后,进行的动作
    if (result) { //如果镜头切换成功,则result=true
        viewer.selectedEntity = wyoming;
    }
});

有时需要镜头跟踪某个实体(使居中)而不是地球,可以使用如下代码:

wyoming.position = Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-107.724, 42.68);
viewer.trackedEntity = wyoming;  //跟踪某个实体。如果调用zoomTo、flyTo自动取消跟踪

管理Entity

EntityCollection对象是一个从Entity Id到Entity的关联数组,其提供例如add、remove、removeAll之类的常规函数,用于添加或者删除某个Entity:

//添加一个实体,并且提供ID
viewer.entities.add({
  id : '182bdba4-2b3e-47ae-bf0b-83f6fde285fd'
});
//获取一个实体
var entity = viewer.entities.getById('uniqueId')
//获取一个实体,如果不存在则创建之
var entity = viewer.entities.getOrCreateEntity('uniqueId');
 
//当添加、删除、修改EntityCollection中的Entity时,可以获得事件通知
function onChanged(collection, added, removed, changed){
    //add、removed、changed是增删改的Entity数组
    for(var i = 0; i < added.length; i++) {
        
    }
}
viewer.entities.collectionChanged.addEventListener(onChanged);
 
//大批量操作时,临时禁用事件可以提高性能
viewer.entities.suspendEvents();
//执行各种Entity操作
viewer.entities.resumeEvents();

点、图标和标签

添加一个点、标签或者图标很简单:

var viewer = new Cesium.Viewer( 'cesiumContainer' );
 
var citizensBankPark = viewer.entities.add( {
    name : 'Citizens Bank Park',
    position : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees( -75.166493, 39.9060534 ),
    point : { //点
        pixelSize : 5,
        color : Cesium.Color.RED,
        outlineColor : Cesium.Color.WHITE,
        outlineWidth : 2
    },
    label : { //文字标签
        text : 'Citizens Bank Park',
        font : '14pt monospace',
        style : Cesium.LabelStyle.FILL_AND_OUTLINE,
        outlineWidth : 2,
        verticalOrigin : Cesium.VerticalOrigin.BOTTOM, //垂直方向以底部来计算标签的位置
        pixelOffset : new Cesium.Cartesian2( 0, -9 )   //偏移量
    }
    billboard : { //图标
        image : 'http://localhost:81/images/2015/02-02/Philadelphia_Phillies.png',
        width : 64,
        height : 64
    },
} );
 
viewer.zoomTo( viewer.entities );

3D模型

Cesium支持glTF格式的3D模型,glTF是WebGL、 OpenGL ES、 OpenGL的一种运行时模型格式,在Cesium中创建3D模型很简单:

var viewer = new Cesium.Viewer('cesiumContainer');
var entity = viewer.entities.add({
    position : Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-123.0744619, 44.0503706),
    model : {
        uri : '../../SampleData/models/CesiumGround/Cesium_Ground.gltf'
    },
    scale : 1,//和原始大小相比的缩放比例
    minimumPixelSize :100 //最小尺寸,防止太小而看不见
});
viewer.trackedEntity = entity;

默认情况下,模型竖直放置、并且面向东面。可以指定四元组(Quaternion)给Entity.orientation属性,以改变放置的方向:

var viewer = new Cesium.Viewer('cesiumContainer');
var position = Cesium.Cartesian3.fromDegrees(-123.0744619, 44.0503706); //位置
var heading = Cesium.Math.toRadians(45.0);//绕垂直于地心的轴旋转
var pitch = Cesium.Math.toRadians(15.0);  //绕纬度线旋转
var roll = Cesium.Math.toRadians(0.0);    //绕经度线旋转
var orientation = Cesium.Transforms.headingPitchRollQuaternion(position, heading, pitch, roll);
 
var entity = viewer.entities.add({
    position : position,
    orientation : orientation,
    model : {
        uri : '../../SampleData/models/CesiumGround/Cesium_Ground.gltf'
    }
});
viewer.trackedEntity = entity;
例子中的heading(yaw)、pitch、roll对应了绕Z(垂直轴)、Y(维度方向)、X(经度方向)进行旋转,正数表示顺时针旋转(由于相对运动,在浏览器上看起来是地球在逆时针旋转),可以参考下图理解(人面向北面,摇头heading、点头pitch、歪头roll):

                            

属性系统

Cesium提供了一些快捷方式来设置属性,例如outline:true,但是尝试使用e.polygon.outline这样的形式来获取轮廓时,会得到一个ConstantProperty对象,如果不使用快捷方式,则需要编写更多的代码,例如:

polygon.outline = new Cesium.ConstantProperty(true);
polygon.outlineColor = new Cesium.ConstantProperty(Cesium.Color.BLACK);


所有属性的实例均是Property的子类型,引入属性类层次而不是使用基本类型的原因是,某些属性是随着时间而变化的。

要得到属性的原始值,需要调用Property.getValue()方法,例如:

//获取当前时间点,多边形轮廓是否存在
polygon.outline.getValue(viewer.clock.currentTime)
















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